Flamenco is music, expression, feeling, identity and soul. A Spanish musical genre whose main expressions are singing, guitar playing and dancing, each maintaining its own rules and traditions. The origins of Flamenco are uncertain; scholars have suggested a multitude of theories, the most widely accepted being that it originated in Islamic monochord chants, as well as in the different musical legacies of southern Spain, in which the Salmódial melodies and the Jewish musical system, the Ionian and Phrygian modes of clear Byzantine inspiration, the Hindu musical traditions and the Mozarabic folk songs stand out, in a cultural mix that led to Flamenco emerging from the people themselves.

In November 2010, UNESCO declared Flamenco Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity at the initiative of the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia. Thus the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation considers:

Flamenco is an artistic expression fusing song (cante), dance (baile) and musicianship (toque). Andalusia in southern Spain is the heartland of Flamenco, although it also has roots in regions such as Murcia and Extremadura. Cante is the vocal expression of flamenco, sung by men and women, preferably seated, with no backing singers. The gamut of feelings and states of mind – grief, joy, tragedy, rejoicing and fear – can be expressed through sincere, expressive lyrics characterized by brevity and simplicity. Flamenco baile is a dance of passion, courtship, expressing a wide range of situations ranging from sadness to joy. The technique is complex, differing depending on whether the performer is male (heavier use of the feet) or female (gentler, more sensual movements). Toque or the art of guitar playing has long surpassed its original role as accompaniment. Other instruments, including castanets, hand-clapping and foot-stamping are also employed. Flamenco is performed during religious festivals, rituals, church ceremonies and at private celebrations. It is the badge of identity of numerous communities and groups, in particular the Gitano (Roma) ethnic community, which has played an essential role in its development. Transmission occurs through dynasties, families, social groups and Flamenco clubs, all of which play a key role in its preservation and dissemination.